These adjectives mean unsparing and exacting with respect to discipline or control. Severe implies adherence to rigorous standards or high principles and often suggests harshness: “Praise or blame has but a momentary effect on the man whose love of beauty in the abstract makes him a severe critic on his own works” (John Keats). Stern suggests unyielding disposition, uncompromising resolution, or forbidding appearance or nature: “a man fatally stern and implacable” (George Meredith). Austere connotes aloofness or lack of feeling or sympathy, and often rigid morality: Austere officers demand meticulous conformity with military regulations.Ascetic suggests self-discipline and often renunciation of worldly pleasures for spiritual improvement: “Be systematically ascetic … do … something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it” (William James). Strict means requiring or showing stringent observance of obligations, rules, or standards: “He could not be severe nor even passably strict” (W.H. Hudson).
It is unusually hard, owing to the recent severe but transient cold, and all watered or waved like a palace floor.
Avicenna himself was at this season stricken down by a severe illness.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
From 59-62 he commanded in Britain, and, after a severe defeat, finally crushed the Iceni under Boadicea (Boudicca).
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.