Jackson thereupon swiftly rejoined Lee, leaving only a division to carry out the capitulation.
The battle preceding a capitulation lasted from July until December.
For twelve months the population held out, repulsing the attacks of the enemy, refusing every offer of honourable capitulation.
His "plan" for defending the city raised expectations doomed to disappointment; the successive sorties made under pressure of public opinion were unsuccessful, and having declared in one of his proclamations that the governor of Paris would never capitulate, when capitulation became inevitable he resigned the governorship of Paris on the 2 2nd of January 1871 to General Vinoy, retaining the presidency of the government until after the armistice in February.
Amr recrossed the river and joined it, but presently was confronted by a Roman army, which he defeated at the battle of Heliopolis (July 640); this victory was followed by the siege of Babylon, which after some futile attempts at negotiation was taken partly by storm and partly by capitulation.