He left Paris after the coup d'etat of 1851 and spent nine years in England.
The coup d'etat seemed to have failed.
Concurrently with these undertakings, he steadily prepared to strengthen his position in the political life of France; and it will be well to notice the steps by which he ensured the defeat of the royalists in France and the propping up of the directorial system in the coup d'etat of Fructidor 1797.
Of the generals, Murat, Berthier, Lannes and Leclerc were those who prepared the way for the coup d'etat.
The present article deals with the progress of the Revolution itself from the convocation of the states-general to the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire which placed Napoleon Bonaparte in power.