The only reservation which the most advanced Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church.
It doubtless arose from the proposed forms for the definitions of the primacy and the pontifical magisterium.
But the Marches were soon reoccupied by pontifical troops, and Perugia fell, its capture being followed by an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and children.
It is used not only at pontifical High Mass but at all solemn pontifical functions, e.g.
In the 9th century appeared the pontifical gloves; in the loth, the mitre; in the 11th, the use of liturgical shoes and stockings was reserved for cardinals and bishops.