Leo was disturbed throughout his pontificate by heresy and schism.
During his pontificate the church was brought to its lowest level of degradation.
In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
Somewhat later it disappeared also in the case of the churches of less importance, patronal rights over these being substituted for the former absolute ownership. The pontificate of Alexander III.