These nouns refer to what is known, as through study or experience. Knowledge is the broadest: “Science is organized knowledge” (Herbert Spencer). Information often implies a collection of facts and data: “A man's judgment cannot be better than the information on which he has based it” (Arthur Hays Sulzberger). Learning usually refers to knowledge gained by schooling and study: “Learning … must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence” (Abigail Adams). Erudition implies profound, often specialized knowledge: “Some have criticized his poetry as elitist, unnecessarily impervious to readers who do not share his erudition” (Elizabeth Kastor). Lore is usually applied to knowledge gained through tradition or anecdote about a particular subject: Many American folktales concern the lore of frontier life.Scholarship is the mastery of a particular area of learning reflected in a scholar's work: A good journal article shows ample evidence of the author's scholarship.