In 1862 a series of stockades was built as a protection from the Indians.
Some planting was enclosed in stockades of windbreak material but the posts would work loose in the saturated winter ground.
The storming of their favourite positions - stockades strengthened with rifle-pits - was often costly; and a strange anti-Christian fanaticism, the Hau-Hau cult, encouraged them to face the white men's bullets and bayonets.
No doubt ceorls took part in military expeditions, but they may have gone as attendants and camp-followers rather than as warriors, their chief business being to make stockades and bridges, and especially to carry provisions.
Carriers could scarcely be obtained, there were no local food supplies, the rainy season was at its height, all the roads were deep mire, the bush was almost impenetrable, and the enemy were both brave and cunning, fighting behind concealed stockades.