For the next nine years he was the protagonist of Reform.
Throughout Europe the governing classes regarded this "union of throne and altar" as axiomatic.
He took up the task with the greatest zeal, although Berengar had been his personal friend; he was the protagonist of orthodoxy at the councils of Vercelli (1050), Tours (1054) and Rome (1059).
To meet this special perplexity, the author holds up the picture of early days, when the great protagonist of the Gospel constantly enjoyed protection at the hands of Roman justice.
But humanism, first of all in its protagonist Erasmus, afterwards in the long 'a ' list of critical scholars and editors, Lipsius, Heinsius sc and Grotius, in the printers Elzevir and-Plantin, developed ship. itself from the centre of the Leiden university with massive energy, and proved that it was still a motive force of intellectual progress.