A penitentiary was established in 1817 at Milledgeville.
In the former penitentiary prisoners.
It contains the state capitol, the state penitentiary, a U.S. land office, a U.S. surveyor-general's office, a U.S. Indian school and a U.S. weather station; about a mile S.
Other prominent buildings are the United States court house and post office, the state supreme court house, the county court house, the state penitentiary, the state armoury and the executive mansion.
The centres of population are Noumea (Numea), the capital, on a fine harbour of the west coast near the southern extremity of the island, with 7000 inhabitants; Bourail, an agricultural penitentiary (1800); La Foa, in the centre of the coffee plantations; Moindu, St Louis and St Vincent.