Coercive temporal authority over their bodies or estates could only be given by concession from the temporal prince.
The governor has a hereditary army for coercive purposes.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
The effect of the addition of tungsten in increasing the coercive force is very clearly shown; in two specimens containing respectively 3.44 and 2.35% of tungsten the coercive force was 64.5 and 70.7.
Article 17 maintained the independence of the ecclesiastical Jurisdiction in spiritual and disciplinary matters, but reserved for the state the exclusive right to carry out coercive measures.