So sharp as to cause mental pain
The physical properties of the powder also give it a mild astringent action.
Iron in the intestine causes an astringent or constipating effect.
It has a sweet astringent taste, very soluble in water, but scarcely soluble in alcohol.
Calcium salts form insoluble soaps with fats, and combine with albumen in a manner which makes them soothing and astringent rather than irritating.
The leaves and husk of the fruit are resinous and astringent, and are sometimes used medicinally as well as for dyeing purposes.