He kept up the communication for six months, in all weathers, and found that ordinary commercial messages could be transmitted at the rate of 15 to 20 words a minute.
The harbour formed by the Bay of Tangier is an extensive one, the best Morocco possesses, and good in all weathers except during a strong east wind, but vessels of any size have to anchor a mile or so out as the shore to the west is shallow and sandy, and to the east, rocky and shingly.
In practice the gradient should not exceed i in 221, and even that is too steep, since theoretical conditions cannot always be realized; a wet rail will reduce the adhesion, and the gradients must be such that some paying load can be hauled in all weathers.
A breakwater was therefore planned on the Monarch shoal, to double the available anchorage area and increase the frontage of deep-water wharves available in all weathers.
The Bay of Spezia is sheltered from all except southerly winds, and on its western shore are numerous openings, which afford perfectly safe anchorage in all weathers.