The Pasargadian kings of Anshan were vassals of the Median empire.
A strong check was thus imposed upon the tendency of freemen to become the vassals of great lords.
Small native princes ruled as vassals of Egypt which, after expelling the Hyksos from its borders, had entered upon a series of conquests as far as the Euphrates.
From 1466 to 1526 grand masters of the Order ruled in East Prussia as vassals of Poland.
Although his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority by his turbulent vassals.