These novels teach the moral of renunciation (Entsagung).
The second aspect of his influence is the doctrine of redemption of the soul from its sensual bonds, first by the medium of art and second by the path of renunciation and ascetic life.
Here we have the ideal of early Christian renunciation at work, but apart from the influence of Jesus.
Epictetus is marked out amongst Stoics by his renunciation of the world.
If he had a strong passion, it was to provide for his succession to the throne of France, if his nephew, Louis XV., should die, and he indulged in many intrigues against the house of Orleans, whose right to the succession was supposed to be secured by Philip's solemn renunciation of all claim to the French throne, when he became king of Spain.