There is little evidence of the imposition of fines as ecclesiastical penalties; but there are references to the practice in the epistles of St Gregory the Great, notably in his instructions to St Augustine.
References to original papers indicate further sources of information.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
1848), by Dufrnoy and Elie de Beaumont; a more modern account, with full references, is given by A.
References to the chief sources of information regarding the states is given under each of them.