In them is foreshadowed all that he afterwards worked out in metaphysics, psychology, ethics and aesthetics.
Metaphysics he held to be based on psychology.
After his reception into the Church of Rome, Ward gave himself up to ethics, metaphysics and moral philosophy.
His knowledge of the metaphysics of Spinoza was such that he was selected by one of the professors to prepare materials for a treatise De Spinosismo, which was afterwards published.
But just as the subject of every science is the manifestation of this unknown essence of life while that essence itself can only be the subject of metaphysics, even the manifestation of the force of free will in human beings in space, in time, and in dependence on cause forms the subject of history, while free will itself is the subject of metaphysics.