In Spain and Portugal, and also in Belgium, a Liberalism inimical to the Church was in power.
His extreme liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant.
The quarrel between Liberalism and Clericalism was, however, not ended.
The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.