- A, Section of British Bull-Headed Rail, 90 lb to the yard, showing also chair and fastenings.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.
Care should be taken that the ties or fastenings do not eventually cut into the bark as the branches swell with increased age.
Teak wood is straight in the grain and exceptionally strong and durable, its oily nature enabling it to resist the attacks of insects and to preserve, iron nails and fastenings.