In 1859 he became privat-docent in physics and chemistry at Breslau, where in the preceding year he had graduated as Ph.
In 1857 he became docent in German law at Munich university, and in 1862 professor-extraordinary, but in 1863 was called to Wiirzburg to a full professorship. In 1872 he removed to the university of Konigsberg, and in 1888 settled at Breslau, becoming rector of the university in 1895.
He studied at Upsala from 1876 to 1881 and at Stockholm from 1881 to 1884, then returning to Upsala as privat-docent in physical chemistry.
In 1872 he became docent, and in 1882 professor of political economy at Upsala, of which university he was afterwards rector.