Francis Wayland Parker (1837-1902), who abolished learning lessons by rote, and introduced Froebelian principles.
Like the Gaulish druids described by Caesar, the poet (fili) and the druid possessed a huge stock of unwritten native lore, probably enshrined in verse which was learnt by rote by their pupils.
Religious training was confined to instruction in the forms of the Orthodox Church and the repetition of prayers by rote; dogmatic questions Nicholas neither understood nor cared about; and, in spite of his reverence for his brother Alexander, the latter's mysticism had not the faintest influence upon him.
But on the whole the false prophets deserve that name, not for their conscious impostures, but because they were content to handle religious formulas, which they had learned by rote, as if they were intuitive principles, the fruit of direct spiritual experience, to enforce a conventional morality, shutting their eyes to glaring national sins, after the manner of professional orthodoxy, and, in brief, to treat the religious status quo as if it could be accepted without question as fully embodying the unchanging principles of all religion.
- Examinations may test (i.) knowledge, or, more exactly, the power of restating facts and arguments of a kind that may be learnt by rote; (ii.) the power i See E.