The treatment of opiate misusers not using pharmacotherapy can also be effective, especially - but not exclusively - for young people.
It is expected that this will be the main provision for many stimulant misusers whose treatment may not involve pharmacotherapy.
Prescribing services should also offer treatment which does not include pharmacotherapy, including treatment for opiate dependence and crack users.
pharmacotherapy for drug dependence.
He moved to Aston in October, where he has set up the Center for Evidence-based pharmacotherapy.