As in earlier times, offenders were punished by expulsion.
The system of forced loans was abolished and a 1 o% tax on real property introduced in its stead, and a law of amnesty for political offenders enacted.
The Portuguese were even worse offenders, for in 1680 they made a settlement on the north of the river Plate, right opposite to Buenos Aires, named Colonia, which with one or two short intervals, remained.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
Boston was one of the first municipalities of the country to make provision for the separate treatment of juvenile offenders; in 1906 a juvenile court was established.