- The method which Napier terms "Rabdologia" consists in the use of certain numerating rods for the performance of
**multiplications**and divisions. - The second method, which he calls the "Promptuarium Multiplicationis" on account of its being the most expeditious of all for the performance of
**multiplications**, involves the use of a number of lamellae or little plates of metal disposed in a box. - When algebra had advanced to the point where exponents were introduced, nothing would be more natural than that their utility as a means of performing
**multiplications**and divisions should be remarked; but it is one of the surprises in the history of science that logarithms were invented as an arithmetical improvement years before their connexion with exponents was known. - 1890, p. 490) that exp(mldl +m2d2+m3d3+...) = exp (Midi +M2d2+M3d3+...), where now the
**multiplications**on the dexter denote successive operations, provided that pp t exp(MiE+M2 2+M3E3+...) +mlH+m2V+m3S3+..., being an undetermined algebraic quantity. - Where the
**multiplications**on the leftand right-hand sides of the equation are symbolic and unsymbolic respectively, provided that m P4, M P4 are quantities which satisfy the relation exp (M14+Moir+...+Mp4EpnP+...) =1+mic -Fmoif+...+mp,eng+...; where E, n are undetermined algebraic quantities.

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