They were originally of the nature of mortgage bonds on the national lands.
A married man may not sell or mortgage a homestead without his wife's consent.
The homestead exemption extends to a dwelling-house, with its land and appurtenances, with a value not exceeding $5000; but no exemption is granted against a process to enforce the payment of purchase-money, or for improvements, or for legal taxes, or of a mortgage to which both the husband and wife have consented.
Loans on mortgage may also be granted to landowners and agricultural unions, with a view to the introduction of agricultural improvements.
But this resulted in so heavy a: burden upon the public that the law had again to be altered to extend hereditary rights, and to admit a system of mortgage which was assimilated to that for emiriye; but the evils were little more than palliated.