When heated to nearly a red heat it gives a porous friable mass which is known as "burnt alum."
It should then be thrown together in ridges and frequently turned, so as to be kept in an incipient state of fermentation, a little dryish friable loam being mixed with it to retain the ammonia given off by the dung.
The soil generally is a sandy loam or a strong but friable clay, and very fertile.
The eastern portion of the county is generally of a light friable soil; the southern portion rocky and barren, with but little bog except in the neighbourhood of Newtown-Hamilton.
In each province they had found the best springs, beds of clay, paint, soapstone, flinty rock, friable stone for sculpture and hard, tenacious stone for tools, and used ashes for salt.