A criminal code, scarcely equalled for barbarity, though twice mitigated by royal edict since 1785, remained in force in its main provisions till 1895.
The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
It was only equalled in its ill humour by his attacks on Bavaria in 1870.
He was equalled if not surpassed in this excess by his follower Jean Bouillaud (1796-1881), known for his important work on heart diseases.
An accomplished artist in the Chinese manner, he amused himself and his friends by burlesque sketches, marked by a grace and humour that his imitators never equalled.