In many instances the German submarine crews were unaware of the effect of their operations.
In 1870 the crews numbered 6900 men, in 1907 they numbered 29,536.
They have a reputation for treachery, and for assaults on shipwrecked crews.
It was a difficult operation, for the French and Spaniards had in all 46 line-of-battle ships to his 33, and in the exhausted state of the country it was impossible to fit his ships properly or to supply them with good crews.
Three-fourths of the Turkish and Egyptian vessels were sunk by the assailants, or fired by their own crews.