He served as chairman of many commissions dealing with public health, prohibition, and labour.
In 1905 he was chairman of the r'Iass.
He was chairman of the Republican national executive campaign committee in 1888, and was a member of the United States Senate in1887-1899and again in 1901-1904.
From 1875 to 1887, when he entered the U.S. Senate, he was again a representative in Congress, and from 1877 almost continuously to the close of his service he was chairman of the Committee on Commerce, in which capacity he had a prominent part in securing the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
As they died, they shouted, 'Communist Party, Chairman Mao, save us.'