A drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant ~ (May 1849); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti tuted during which the government became somewhat more tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy.
Both before and after the marriage he seems to have been a libertine as unblushing though not so fastidious as Charles himself.
Though a libertine and a free-thinker, he had championed the most bigoted and tyrannical high-church measures.
The Roman Catholics, though still in the majority in the bishopric, had little influence on the politics of the city, where the aristocrats inclined to the moderate (libertine) opinions advocated by the preacher Hubrecht Duifhuis, while the democrats were organized in the new church order introduced by the uncompromising Calvinist Petrus Dathenus (d.
He was badly brought up by a feeble father, a mother who combined immorality with religion, and a libertine abbe.