It appears, therefore, that to the order of approximation afforded by (3), the effect of the particles in dx is to modify the phase, but not the intensity, of the light which passes them.
In order to render an 'account of Tyndall's "residual blue" it is necessary to pursue the approximation further, taking for simplicity the case of spherical shape.
In the case, however, of many observatories, especially as regards the older records, no data for reduction exist; further, the reduction to the open is at best only an approximation, the success attending which probably varies considerably at different stations.
If the mean of the gradients observed at the ground and at 1500 metres be taken as an approximation to the mean value of the gradient throughout the lowest 1500 metres of the atmosphere, we find for the potential at 1500 metres level 112,500 volts.
Their form, however, is not sufficiently characteristic to warrant this identification, though it may be noted that the nearest approximation to phallic worship is found amongst the most typical of African peoples, viz.