For the first time in his life Charles was now obliged to have recourse to diplomacy; and his pen proved almost as formidable as his sword.
Recourse was then had to protective legislation.
In the extremity of his fortunes he had recourse himself to Otto, making a formal cession of the Italian kingdom, in his own name and that of his son Adalbert, to the Saxon as his overlord.
The universal habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent.
A letter like this, clear cut in its thought, teeming with ideas emanating from an unique religious experience, and admirably adjusted to known situations, bears on the face of it the marks of genuineness even without recourse to the unusually excellent external attestation.