Venice stood aloof, professing a nominal allegiance to the East.
The duke unwillingly complied, but when the French entered Piedmont and demanded the cession of the fortresses of Turin and Verrua, he refused, and while still professing to negotiate with Louis, joined the league of Austria, Spain and Venice.
His brother was brought in and finally confessed, professing he had no knowledge of Jude's criminal activities.
I have reason to believe that's about the only place that hasn't been infiltrated by those professing allegiance to East or West.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.