Take any horizontal line and divide it into small elements of length each representing dq, and draw vertical lines representing the potentials v, v', &c., and after each dose.
In any case, therefore, in which we can sum up the elementary potentials at any point we can calculate the resultant electric force at the same point.
Let V 1 and V2 be the potentials of the plates, and let a charge Q be given to one of them.
Electrostatic voltmeters are based on the principle that when two conductors are at different potentials they attract one another with a force which varies as the square of the potential difference (P. D.) between them.
The chemical potentials are clearly functions of the composition of the system, and of its temperature and pressure.