The state banks, already hampered by maladministration, were encumbered by huge quantities of real estate which had been taken over as compensation for unredeemed mortgages.
Guchkov attacked the maladministration in the navy, pointing out that no reforms were possible so long as grand-dukes were at the head of its departments.
made responsible for its maladministration.
Suffice it to say that differences with Irala eventually led to his arrest, and to his being sent back to Spain to answer to the charges brought against him for maladministration.
To the difficulties caused by disaster, depopulation and maladministration there was added the danger of foreign invasion when war broke out in Europe between Francis I.