If the upper portion of the esophagus is short and a long gap exists between upper and lower portions, reconstructive surgery cannot be performed, and the infant must receive nutrition in some way to allow several months of growth.
Type C (86.5%): Esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula, in which the upper segment of the esophagus ends in a blind pouch (EA) and the lower segment of the esophagus is attached to the trachea (TEF).
When the stomach contents moves into the esophagus, there is the possibility that this material will be aspirated into the windpipe, which can cause asthma, pneumonia, and possibly suffocation or sudden death.
This defect almost always occurs in conjunction with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), a condition in which the esophagus is improperly attached to the trachea, the "windpipe" that carries air into the lungs.
Smoking is also the leading cause of bladder cancer and has been shown to contribute to cancers of the upper respiratory tract, esophagus, larynx, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and possibly breast as well.