The small twigs, tied in bundles, are boiled for some time in water with broken biscuit or roasted grain; the resulting decoction is then poured into a cask with molasses or maple sugar and a little yeast, and left to ferment.
The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.
Cochineal owes its tinctorial power to the presence of a substance termed cochinealin or carminic acid, C17H18010, which may be prepared from the aqueous decoction of cochineal.
A decoction of the buds in milk or whey is a common household remedy for scurvy; and the young shoots or green cones form an essential ingredient in the spruce-beer drank with a similar object, or as an occasional beverage.
The nuts are again boiled, and the inspissated juice of the second decoction yields a weaker catechu of a brown or reddish colour.