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Determinants composed of binomial coefficients have been studied by V.

Relation of Binomial Coefficients to Summation of Series.

(v.) Permutations and Combinations may be regarded as arithmetical recreations; they become important algebraically in reference to the binomial theroem (ï¿½ï¿½ 41, 44)ï¿½ (vi.) Surds and Approximate Logarithms. - From the arithmetical point of view, surds present a greater difficulty than negative quantities and fractional numbers.

This is the binomial theorem for a positive integral index.

There are extensions of the binomial theorem, by means of which approximate calculations can be made of fractions, surds, and powers of fractions and of surds; the main difference being that the number of terms which can be taken into account is unlimited, so that, although we may approach nearer and nearer to the true value, we never attain it exactly.