As public penance finally decayed, and auricular confession took its place, these were superseded by the Summae de Poenitentia, - law-books in the strictest sense.
Their crania have a normal development; their cheek-bones are high; their noses prominent, with large nostrils; their lips straight; and they are marked by the absence of the auricular lobules.
These parliament enacted into the terrible statute of " The Six Articles," in which a felon's death was prescribed for those who obstinately denied transubstantiation, demanded the communion under both kinds, questioned the binding character of vows of chastity, or the lawfulness of private Masses or the expediency of auricular confession.
In point of doctrine they acknowledged the seven sacraments, but gave them a symbolical meaning; they prayed to the Virgin and saints, and admitted auricular confession, but they denied purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass, and did not observe fasts or festivals.
In course of time changes grew up. (I) From the 3rd century onwards, secret (auricular) confession before a bishop or priest was practised.