The question of their affinity to other divisions of the animal kingdom depends principally on the views which are held with regard to the relationships of the Enteropneusta and Phoronidea respectively.
It can only be said that their organization, so far as the state of their preservation permits it to be ascertained, offers closer analogies with the Hydrozoa, especially the Calyptoblastea, than with any other existing group of the animal kingdom.
Diptera as an order are probably more widely distributed over the earth's surface than are the representatives of any similar division of the animal kingdom.
The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.
They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.