The whole business seems to have been purely a piece of vindictiveness on the part of Biren.
Whether the chief cause of this humiliation was Grant's vindictiveness at Sumner's opposition to his San Domingo project or a genuine fear that the impossible demand, which he insisted should be made upon England, would wreck the prospect of a speedy and honourable adjustment with that country, cannot be determined.
After the Yorkist failure at Ludlow in 1459, it was Margaret's vindictiveness that embittered the struggle by, a wholesale proscription of her opponents in the parliament at Coventry.
The relentless vindictiveness of the two brothers caused them to constantly fight.
Giannettino was murdered, but the conspirators were defeated, and Andrea showed great vindictiveness in punishing them.