The process of fermentation in the preparation of wine, vinegar, beer and bread was known and practised in prehistoric times.
His investigations on vinegar-making revolutionized that industry, and he showed how, instead of waiting two or three months for the elaboration of the process, the vinegar could be made in eight or ten days by exposing the vats containing the mixture of wine and vinegar to a temperature of 20 to 25° C., and sowing with a small quantity of the acetic organism.
Printing, book-selling, the manufacture of surgical and scientific instruments, chemicals, gloves and vinegar, and the cultivation of hops, fruit and vines are among the leading occupations of the inhabitants.
Among its manufactures are earthenware, tobacco, vinegar, flour, farm-gates (iron), sash and doors, marble and granite monuments, carriages and bricks.
For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.