In connexion with the Catholic reaction in the Church of England, which had its origin in the "Oxford Movement" of the 19th century, efforts have been made by some of the clergy to reintroduce the term "Mass" for the Holy Communion in the English Church.
In 1561 Gotthard Ketteler publicly abdicated his mastership of the order of the Teutonic Knights, and Riga, together with southern Livonia, became a Polish possession; after some unsuccessful attempts to reintroduce Roman Catholicism, Stephen Bathory, king of Poland, recognized the religious freedom of the Protestant population.
He did not again attempt during Lord Palmerstons life to reintroduce the subject.
His destructive criticism thus tended to reintroduce the dualism between faith and reason which Scholasticism had laboured through centuries to overcome, though Scotus himself, of course, had no such sceptical intention.
In a long series of crafty movements James managed to reintroduce episcopacy (1598-1600) by the aid of packed General Assemblies, later declared void by the Covenanters (1638).