Whether led by this Mattathias or not, certain Jews fled into the wilderness and found a leader in Judas Maccabaeus his reputed son, the first of the five Asmonean (Hasmonean) brethren.
Judas was at Emmaus; " the men of the citadel " guided a detachment of the Syrian troops to his encampment by night.
In 163 Lysias led another expedition against these disturbers of the king's peace and defeated Judas at Bethzachariah.
In response to his complaints Nicanor was appointed governor of Judaea with power to treat with Judas, It appears that the two became friends at first, but fresh orders from Antioch made Nicanor, guilty of treachery in the eyes of Judas's partisans.
Warned by the change of his friend's manner Judas fled.