The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
The interception by the state of the unearned increment, and the promotion of co-operative agriculture, were the most striking features in his programme.
The knowledge of compound radicals received further increment at the hands of Robert W.
For example, the difference due to an increment of CH 2 is about 56.6, as is shown in the following table: - Since the critical volume of normal pentane C5H12 is 307.2, we have H 2 = C 5 H 12 -5CH 2 =307.2 - 5 X56.6 =24.2, and C=CH2 - H2= 32.4.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.