Then he completed the plan: he read the letter to the Assembly; it was ordered to be printed, became the manifesto of disaffection, and was circulated everywhere.
Both by its attitude and by its governmental acts, the papacy of the later 13th century itself contributed to increase the discredit and disaffection from which it suffered.
In the outburst of indignation, followed by increasing disaffection in Ireland, which this event produced, Grattan acted with conspicuous moderation and loyalty, which won for him warm acknowledgments from a member of the English cabinet.2 That cabinet, however, doubtless influenced by the wishes of the king, was now determined firmly to resist the Catholic demands, with the result that the country rapidly drifted towards rebellion.
Thus stimulated, the increasing disaffection culminated in the rebellion of 1798, which was sternly and cruelly repressed.
This revelation of disaffection, together with the fall of Constantinople, darkened the last years of Nicholas; "As Thomas of Sarzana," he said, "I had more happiness in a day than now in a whole year."