The emperor renounced investiture by ring and staff, and permitted canonical elections; the pope on his part recognized the king's right to perform lay investiture and to assist at elections.
In the canonical form f=k1(px)5 +k2(gx) 5 +k3(rx) 5 .
They must therefore have been regarded as canonical in the first half of the 4th century.
In all cases canonical institution (which confers ecclesiastical jurisdiction) is reserved to the pope or the bishops.
The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.