Secular state education and the "conscience clause" were anathema to him.
For excommunication differs from anathema: anathema which ought to be very rarely, or never, resorted to, in precluding all pardon, execrates a person, and devotes him to eternal perdition: whereas excommunication rather censures and punishes his conduct.
What he calls heresy, under the sanction of excommunication or that more formal excommunication known as anathema, is heresy.
In the hurry of first terror, the church struck Aristotle with the anathema launched against innovations in philosophy.
Much as he mingled with society, and with persons of importance in church and state, his single interference in political matters was in 1593, when his persuasions induced the pope, Clement VIII., to withdraw the excommunication and anathema of Henry IV.