Secular state education and the "conscience clause" were anathema to him.
What he calls heresy, under the sanction of excommunication or that more formal excommunication known as anathema, is heresy.
In the hurry of first terror, the church struck Aristotle with the anathema launched against innovations in philosophy.
For excommunication differs from anathema: anathema which ought to be very rarely, or never, resorted to, in precluding all pardon, execrates a person, and devotes him to eternal perdition: whereas excommunication rather censures and punishes his conduct.
In 1656 the synod anathematized the adherents of the old forms, and the anathema was confirmed by those of 1666 and 1667.