Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile.
In rare cases, urine from an ectopic ureter will bypass the bladder and dribble out of the bottom somewhere, through a natural orifice like the vagina or a completely separate unnatural opening.
A ureter may have an ectopic (out-of-place) orifice (opening): it may enter the bladder, or even another structure, where it does not belong and therefore lack an adequate valve to control reflux.
Urologists have various approaches to urine drainage that range from simply reimplanting a ureter into the bladder, in such a way that an effective valve is created, to building a new bladder out of a piece of bowel.
In vesicoureteral reflux, however, urine that has already collected in the bladder is able to flow backwards from the bladder, up the ureter, and back into the collecting system of the kidney.