The naked cells which have been alluded to live in water, and call therefore for no differentiation in connection with this necessity; but those which are surrounded by a cell-wall always develop within themselves a vacuole or cavity which occupies the greater part of their interior, and the hydrostatic pressure of whose contents keeps tha protoplasm in contact with the membrane, setting up a condition of turgidity.
The only way in which their turgidity is modified is by the entry of water into them from the contiguous cells of the general epidermis and its subsequent withdrawai through the same channel.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
There is set up at once a certain hydrostatic pressure, due to the turgidity which ensues upon such absorption, and the extensible cell wall stretches, at first in all directions.
The increase in surface of the cell wall is thus duefirstly to the stretching caused by turgidity, and secondly to the formation and deposition of new substance upon the old.