In 1956, psychiatrist Erik Erikson provided an insightful description as to how personality develops based on his extensive experience in psychotherapy with children and adolescents from low, upper, and middle-class backgrounds.
Attachment theory originated in the early 1950s with John Bowlby, a child psychiatrist, and Mary Ainsworth, a psychologist, who both became interested in young children's responses to experiencing loss.
Diagnosis of these disorders usually requires consultation and assessment by a specialist in childhood developmental disorders, such as a child psychiatrist, pediatric neurologist, neuropsychologist, or developmental child psychologist.
Self-mutilation is usually diagnosed by a psychiatrist or psychotherapist upon referral from a family member, physician, nurse, or social worker who has noticed scars, bruises, or other physical evidence of self-injury.
According to psychiatrist Robert Reich, M.D., compulsive lying can be associated with diagnoses such as antisocial personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder.